Spanning Tree Protocol

Spanning tree protocol is a mechanism to prevent loops among switches. There could be a loop in one switch as well, but we are here considering multiple switches and preventing them to create a loop. Loop is the condition where your switch sends a packet from one interface and somehow the same packets get back to same switch on difference interface.This is layer-2 switch and are comparatively dangerous than Layer-3 loops. This loop ends up in a broadcast storm. The simplest solution Read more [...]

Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP)

Serial ports do not have MAC address. The question is how the serial connection works then if it does not have MAC address because at the end of the day we have to have layer-2 transimission. There are other technologies such as PPP, HDLC, Frame-Realy, and MPLS that work on layer-2 in serial connection. Frame-relay and MPLS are two protocols that isolate the data of multiple customers using a single line. PPP is the technology that ensures that you own the equipments and line, Read more [...]

Implementing EIGRP for IPv6

  It is important for us to know how to convert the IPv4 to IPv6 because we have to have set the addresses for IPv6. The network topology is as before but in this lab we will be only configuring R1, R2, and R4 to get you understood that how it is done. We can convert our IPv4 into IPv6 by just adding fd00 at beginning of IP address and /64 at end. For example we have IPv4 address 192.168.1.2 it will Read more [...]

Implementing EIGRP for IPv4

Following is the topology for our network to configure EIGRP. In EIGRP we should pick an autonomous system (AS) number for our network no matter whether it is large or small. This AS number must have to match in all the routers sharing EIGRP.RIP is time based protocol where if it does not hear a “hello” message from its neighbor for 90 seconds it make changes in the routing protocol. However, EIGRP & OSPF are triggered based protocols Read more [...]

Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol

EIGRP is the best routing protocol as it supports many IP services, it supports IPv4 and IPv6. The protocol is very fast consumes less resources. The only con of this protocol is that, it is Cisco proprietary you have to have Cisco devices to run this protocol, where OSPF is open standard and supported by all other devices as well.This protocol is version two the first version was IGRP. The beauty of this protocol is that its routing engine was designed first and then different Read more [...]

Implementing OSPFv2

There are two ways to implement the OSPF protocol, one is done by using IP and subnet and other is done by using interfaces.It is up to you that what you use but using it with interfaces because in later of you change your IP setting you do not need to handle the OSPF configuration again. The following is typical network diagram which will we use to configure. The entire router will be part of area-0 and at first we will configure OSPF for R1, R2, & R3. Read more [...]